RNA Modifications in Genomic RNA of Influenza A Virus and the Relationship between RNA Modifications and Viral Infection
Recent studies about the transcriptome-wide presence of RNA modifications have revealed their importance in many cellular functions. Nevertheless, information about RNA modifications in viral RNA is scarce, especially for negative-strand RNA viruses. Here we provide a catalog of RNA modifications including m1A, ac4C, m7G, inosine, and pseudouridine on RNA derived from an influenza A virus infected into A549 cells, as studied by RNA immunoprecipitation followed by deep-sequencing. Possible regions with RNA modifications were found in the negative-strand segments of viral genomic RNA. In addition, our analyses of previously published data revealed that the expression levels of the host factors for RNA modifications were affected by an infection with influenza A virus, and some of the host factors likely have a proviral effect. RNA modification is a novel aspect of host-virus interactions leading to the discovery of previously unrecognized viral pathogenicity mechanisms and has the potential to aid the development of novel antivirals.